Apple Products Could Allow for Arbitrary Code Execution

Fortify Security Team
Jul 22, 2022

Multiple vulnerabilities have been discovered in Apple Products, the most severe of which could allow for arbitrary code execution.

  • iOS is a mobile operating system for mobile devices, including the iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch.
  • iPadOS is the successor to iOS 12 and is a mobile operating system for iPads.
  • macOS Catalina is the 16th major release of macOS
  • macOS Big Sur is the 17th release of macOS.
  • macOS Monterey is the 18th and current major release of macOS.
  • Safari is a graphical web browser developed by Apple.
  • tvOS is an operating system for fourth-generation Apple TV digital media player.
  • watchOS is the mobile operating system for Apple Watch and is based on the iOS operating system.

Successful exploitation of the most severe of these vulnerabilities could allow for arbitrary code execution in the context of the logged on user. Depending on the privileges associated with the user, an attacker could then install programs; view, change, or delete data; or create new accounts with full user rights. Users whose accounts are configured to have fewer user rights on the system could be less impacted than those who operate with administrative user rights.

THREAT INTELLIGENCE:
There are currently no reports that these vulnerabilities are being exploited in the wild.

SYSTEMS AFFECTED:

  • iOS versions prior to 15.6
  • iPadOS versions prior to 15.6
  • macOS Catalina prior to Security Update 2022-005
  • macOS Big Sur versions prior to 11.6.8
  • macOS Monterey versions prior to 12.5
  • Safari versions prior to 15.6
  • watchOS versions prior to 8.7
  • tvOS versions prior to 15.6

RISK:
Government:

  • Large and medium government entities: High
  • Small government entities: High

Businesses:

  • Large and medium business entities: High
  • Small business entities: High

Home users: Low

TECHNICAL SUMMARY:
Multiple vulnerabilities have been discovered in Apple Products, the most severe of which could allow for arbitrary code execution. Details of the most critical vulnerabilities are as follows:

Tactic: Initial Access (TA0001):
      Technique: Drive-by Compromise (T1189):

  • Processing maliciously crafted web content may lead to arbitrary code execution. (CVE-2022-2294) (CVE-2022-32787) (CVE-2022-32792)

Tactic: Execution (TA0002):
      Technique: Exploitation for Client Execution (T1203):

  • An app may cause unexpected app termination or arbitrary code execution (CVE-2022-26981)
  • Processing a maliciously crafted file may lead to arbitrary code execution (CVE-2022-32802)
  • An app may be able to execute arbitrary code with kernel privileges (CVE-2022-32796) (CVE-2022-32810) (CVE-2022-32811) (CVE-2022-32812) (CVE-2022-32814) (CVE-2022-32820) (CVE-2022-32821) (CVE-2022-32829) (CVE-2022-32840) (CVE-2022-26768)
  • An app with root privileges may be able to execute arbitrary code with kernel privileges. (CVE-2022-32832) (CVE-2022-32813) (CVE-2022-32815)
  • A remote user may be able to cause kernel code execution (CVE-2022-32788)
  • A remote user may cause an unexpected app termination or arbitrary code execution (CVE-2022-32839)

Details of lower-severity vulnerabilities are as follows:

  • Multiple issues in Vim (CVE-2021-4136) (CVE-2021-4166) (CVE-2021-4173) (CVE-2021-4187) (CVE-2021-4192) (CVE-2021-4193) (CVE-2021-416059) (CVE-2022-0128) (CVE-2022-0156) (CVE-2022-0158) (CVE-2021-46059)
  • Multiple issues in subversion (CVE-2021-28544) (CVE-2022-24070) (CVE-2022-29046) (CVE-2022-29048)
  • An app with root privileges may be able to access private information (CVE-2022-32781)
  • An app with root privileges may be able to access private information (CVE-2022-32781)
  • Visiting a maliciously crafted website may leak sensitive data. (CVE-2022-32784)
  • Processing an image may lead to a denial-of-service (CVE-2022-32785)
  • An app may be able to modify protected parts of the file system (CVE-2022-32786) (CVE-2022-32800)
  • An app may be able to bypass Privacy preferences (CVE-2022-32789)
  • An app may be able to disclose kernel memory (CVE-2022-32793) (CVE-2022-32817) (CVE-2022-32824) (CVE-2022-32825) (CVE-2022-32828)
  • Processing a maliciously crafted AppleScript binary may result in unexpected termination or disclosure of process memory (CVE-2022-32797) (CVE-2022-32851) (CVE-2022-32852) (CVE-2022-32853) (CVE-2022-32831)
  • A user in a privileged network position may be able to leak sensitive information (CVE-2022-32799)
  • An app may be able to gain root privileges (CVE-2022-32801) (CVE-2022-32819) (CVE-2022-32826)
  • An app may be able to access sensitive user information (CVE-2022-32805) (CVE-2022-32834) (CVE-2022-32849)
  • An app may be able to overwrite arbitrary files (CVE-2022-32807)
  • Visiting a website that frames malicious content may lead to UI spoofing (CVE-2022-32816)
  • An app may be able to leak sensitive kernel state (CVE-2022-32818)
  • An app may be able to leak sensitive user information (CVE-2022-32823)
  • Processing a maliciously crafted image may lead to disclosure of user information (CVE-2022-32830)
  • An app may be able to cause unexpected system termination or write kernel memory (CVE-2022-32837)
  • An app may be able to read arbitrary files (CVE-2022-32838)
  • Processing a maliciously crafted image may result in disclosure of process memory (CVE-2022-32841)
  • An app may be able to gain elevated privileges (CVE-2022-32842) (CVE-2022-26704) (CVE-2022-32798)
  • Processing a maliciously crafted Postscript file may result in unexpected app termination or disclosure of process memory (CVE-2022-32843)
  • An app with arbitrary kernel read and write capability may be able to bypass Pointer Authentication (CVE-2022-32844)
  • An app may be able to break out of its sandbox (CVE-2022-32845)
  • A remote user may be able to cause unexpected system termination or corrupt kernel memory (CVE-2022-32847)
  • An app may be able to capture a user’s screen (CVE-2022-32848)
  • An app may be able to access user-sensitive data (CVE-2022-32849)
  • A user may be able to view restricted content from the lock screen (CVE-2022-32855)
  • A user in a privileged network position can track a user’s activity (CVE-2022-32857)

Successful exploitation of the most severe of these vulnerabilities could allow for arbitrary code execution in the context of the logged on user. Depending on the privileges associated with the user, an attacker could then install programs; view, change, or delete data; or create new accounts with full user rights. Users whose accounts are configured to have fewer user rights on the system could be less impacted than those who operate with administrative user rights.

RECOMMENDATIONS:
We recommend the following actions be taken:

  • Apply the updates provided by Apple to vulnerable systems immediately after appropriate testing. (M1051: Update Software)
    • Safeguard 7.1: Establish and Maintain a Vulnerability Management Process: Establish and maintain a documented vulnerability management process for enterprise assets. Review and update documentation annually, or when significant enterprise changes occur that could impact this Safeguard
    • Safeguard 7.4: Perform Automated Application Patch Management: Perform application updates on enterprise assets through automated patch management on a monthly, or more frequent, basis.
  • Apply the Principle of Least Privilege to all systems and services. Run all software as a non-privileged user (one without administrative privileges) to diminish the effects of a successful attack. (M1026: Privileged Account Management)
    • Safeguard 4.7: Manage Default Accounts on Enterprise Assets and Software: Manage default accounts on enterprise assets and software, such as root, administrator, and other pre-configured vendor accounts. Example implementations can include: disabling default accounts or making them unusable.
    • Safeguard 5.4: Restrict Administrator Privileges to Dedicated Administrator Accounts: Restrict administrator privileges to dedicated administrator accounts on enterprise assets. Conduct general computing activities, such as internet browsing, email, and productivity suite use, from the user’s primary, non-privileged account.
  • Restrict use of certain websites, block downloads/attachments, block Javascript, restrict browser extensions, etc. (M1021: Restrict Web-Based Content)
    • Safeguard 9.2: Use DNS Filtering Services: Use DNS filtering services on all enterprise assets to block access to known malicious domains.
    • Safeguard 9.3: Maintain and Enforce Network-Based URL Filters: Enforce and update network-based URL filters to limit an enterprise asset from connecting to potentially malicious or unapproved websites. Example implementations include category-based filtering, reputation-based filtering, or through the use of block lists. Enforce filters for all enterprise assets.
  • Train users to be aware of access or manipulation attempts by an adversary to reduce the risk of successful spearphishing, social engineering, and other techniques that involve user interaction. (M1017: User Training)
    • Safeguard 14.1: Establish and Maintain a Security Awareness Program: Establish and maintain a security awareness program. The purpose of a security awareness program is to educate the enterprise’s workforce on how to interact with enterprise assets and data in a secure manner. Conduct training at hire and, at a minimum, annually. Review and update content annually, or when significant enterprise changes occur that could impact this Safeguard
    • Safeguard 14.6: Train Workforce Members on Recognizing and Reporting Security Incidents: Train workforce members to be able to recognize a potential incident and be able to report such an incident.

REFERENCES:
Apple:
https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT201222
https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT213340
https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT213341
https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT213342
https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT213343
https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT213344
https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT213345
https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT213346

CVE:
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2021-4136
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2021-4166
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2021-4173
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2021-4187
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2021-4192
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2021-4193
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2021-28544
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2021-46059
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0128
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0156
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0158
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-2294
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-24070
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-26704
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-26768
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-26981
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-29046
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-29048
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32781
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32784
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32785
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32786
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32787
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32788
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32789
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32792
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32793
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32796
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32797
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32798
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32799
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32800
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32801
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32802
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32805
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32807
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32810
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32811
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32812
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32813
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32814
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32815
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32816
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32817
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32818
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32819
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32820
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32821
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32823
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32824
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32825
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32826
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32828
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32829
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32830
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32831
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32832
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32834
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32837
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32838
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32839
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32840
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32841
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32842
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32843
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32844
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32845
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32847
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32848
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32849
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32851
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32852
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32853
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32855
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32857

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