Apple Products Could Allow for Arbitrary Code Execution

Fortify Security Team
Nov 7, 2022

Multiple vulnerabilities have been discovered in Apple Products, the most severe of which could allow for arbitrary code execution.

  • Safari is a graphical web browser developed by Apple.
  • macOS Ventura is the 19th and current major release of macOS
  • macOS Monterey is the 18th and release of macOS.
  • macOS Big Sur is the 17th release of macOS.
  • iOS is a mobile operating system for mobile devices, including the iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch.
  • iPadOS is the successor to iOS 12 and is a mobile operating system for iPads.
  • tvOS is an operating system for fourth-generation Apple TV digital media player.

Successful exploitation of the most severe of these vulnerabilities could allow for arbitrary code execution in the context of the logged on user. Depending on the privileges associated with the user, an attacker could then install programs; view, change, or delete data; or create new accounts with full user rights. Users whose accounts are configured to have fewer user rights on the system could be less impacted than those who operate with administrative user rights.

THREAT INTELLIGENCE:

Apple is aware of a report of CVE-2022-42827 being actively exploded in the wild.

SYSTEMS AFFECTED:

  • Safari versions prior to 16.1
  • iOS versions prior to 16.1, for iPadOS 16 and later, for iPhone 8 and later, iPad Pro (all models), iPad Air 3rd generation and later, iPad 5th generation and later, iPad mini 5th generation and later
  • macOS Big Sur versions prior to 11.7.1
  • macOS Monterey versions prior to 12.6.1
  • macOS Ventura versions prior to 13
  • tvOS versions prior to 16.1
  • watchOS versions prior to 9.1

RISK:
Government:

  • Large and medium government entities: High
  • Small government entities: Medium

Businesses:

  • Large and medium business entities: High
  • Small business entities: Medium

Home users: Low

TECHNICAL SUMMARY:

Multiple vulnerabilities have been discovered in Apple Products, the most severe of which could allow for arbitrary code execution. Details of the most critical vulnerabilities are as follows:
TacticInitial Access (TA0001):
TechniqueDrive-by Compromise (T1189):

  • Processing maliciously crafted web content may lead to arbitrary code execution. (CVE-2022-42823, CVE-2022-32922, CVE-2022-32886, CVE-2022-32888, CVE-2022-32912)
  • Processing maliciously crafted web content may disclose sensitive user information (CVE-2022-42824)
  • Processing a maliciously crafted certificate may lead to arbitrary code execution (CVE-2022-42813)
  • Processing a maliciously crafted image may lead to arbitrary code execution (CVE-2022-42795, CVE-2022-26730)
  • Visiting a malicious website may lead to user interface spoofing (CVE-2022-42799)
  • Processing a maliciously crafted file may lead to a denial-of-service or potentially disclose memory contents (CVE-2022-29458)
  • Processing a maliciously crafted DMG file may lead to arbitrary code execution with system privileges (CVE-2022-32905)
  • Processing a maliciously crafted gcx file may lead to unexpected app termination or arbitrary code execution (CVE-2022-42809)

Details of lower-severity vulnerabilities are as follows:

  • An app may be able to execute arbitrary code with kernel privileges. (CVE-2022-32940, CVE-2022-32947, CVE-2022-42806, CVE-2022-32924, CVE-2022-42827, CVE-2022-32898, CVE-2022-32899, CVE-2022-32865, CVE-2022-32915, CVE-2022-32866, CVE-2022-32911, CVE-2022-32914, CVE-2022-42791)
  • An app with root privileges may be able to execute arbitrary code with kernel privileges (CVE-2022-42829, CVE-2022-42830, CVE-2022-42831, CVE-2022-42832)
  • An app may be able to access user-sensitive data (CVE-2022-42811, CVE-2022-42789, CVE-2022-32904, CVE-2022-42814, CVE-2022-42815)
  • An app may be able to disclose kernel memory (CVE-2022-32936, CVE-2022-32864)
  • An app may be able to modify protected parts of the file system (CVE-2022-32895, CVE-2022-32881)
  • An app with root privileges may be able to access private information (CVE-2022-32862)
  • An app may cause unexpected app termination or arbitrary code execution (CVE-2022-42820)
  • An app may be able to modify protected parts of the file system (CVE-2022-42825)
  • An app may be able to record audio using a pair of connected AirPods (CVE-2022-32946)
  • A remote user may be able to cause kernel code execution (CVE-2022-42808, CVE-2022-32934)
  • A shortcut may be able to check the existence of an arbitrary path on the file system (CVE-2022-32938)
  • A remote user may be able to cause unexpected app termination or arbitrary code execution (CVE-2022-28739)
  • An app may be able to leak sensitive kernel state (CVE-2022-32858)
  • An app may be able to cause a denial-of-service (CVE-2022-32827)
  • An app may be able to bypass Privacy preferences (CVE-2022-32902, CVE-2022-32918)
  • A sandboxed process may be able to circumvent sandbox restrictions (CVE-2022-32890, CVE-2022-32892)
  • An app may be able to gain elevated privileges (CVE-2022-42796)
  • An app may be able to read sensitive location information (CVE-2022-42819, CVE-2022-32883, CVE-2022-32875)
  • A user with physical access to an iOS device may be able to read past diagnostic logs (CVE-2022-32867)
  • Multiple issues in curl (CVE-2022-32205, CVE-2022-32206, CVE-2022-32207, CVE-2022-32208)
  • A user in a privileged network position may be able to intercept mail credentials (CVE-2022-32928)
  • A malicious application may be able to read sensitive location information (CVE-2022-42788)
  • A user may be able to cause unexpected app termination or arbitrary code execution (CVE-2022-3437, CVE-2021-39537)
  • A sandboxed app may be able to determine which app is currently using the camera (CVE-2022-32913)
  • Processing an image may lead to a denial-of-service (CVE-2022-1622)
  • A user may be able to elevate privileges (CVE-2022-32908)
  • A user in a privileged network position may be able to track user activity (CVE-2022-42818)
  • A user with physical access to a device may be able to access contacts from the lock screen (CVE-2022-32879)
  • An app may be able to bypass code signing checks (CVE-2022-42793)
  • A user may be able to view restricted content from the lock screen (CVE-2022-42790)
  • A user with physical access to a device may be able to use Siri to obtain some call history information (CVE-2022-32870)
  • A remote user may be able to cause a denial-of-service (CVE-2021-36690)
  • Multiple issues in Vim (CVE-2022-0261, CVE-2022-0318, CVE-2022-0319, CVE-2022-0351, CVE-2022-0359, CVE-2022-0361, CVE-2022-0368, CVE-2022-0392, CVE-2022-0554, CVE-2022-0572, CVE-2022-0629, CVE-2022-0685, CVE-2022-0696, CVE-2022-0714, CVE-2022-0729, CVE-2022-0943, CVE-2022-1381, CVE-2022-1420, CVE-2022-1725, CVE-2022-1616, CVE-2022-1619, CVE-2022-1620, CVE-2022-1621, CVE-2022-1629, CVE-2022-1674, CVE-2022-1733, CVE-2022-1735, CVE-2022-1769, CVE-2022-1927, CVE-2022-1942, CVE-2022-1968, CVE-2022-1851, CVE-2022-1897, CVE-2022-1898, CVE-2022-1720, CVE-2022-2000, CVE-2022-2042, CVE-2022-2124, CVE-2022-2125, CVE-2022-2126)

Successful exploitation of the most severe of these vulnerabilities could allow for arbitrary code execution in the context of the logged on user. Depending on the privileges associated with the user, an attacker could then install programs; view, change, or delete data; or create new accounts with full user rights. Users whose accounts are configured to have fewer user rights on the system could be less impacted than those who operate with administrative user rights.

RECOMMENDATIONS:
We recommend the following actions be taken:

  • Apply the stable channel update provided by Apple to vulnerable systems immediately after appropriate testing. (M1051: Update Software)
    • Safeguard 7.1 : Establish and Maintain a Vulnerability Management Process: Establish and maintain a documented vulnerability management process for enterprise assets. Review and update documentation annually, or when significant enterprise changes occur that could impact this Safeguard.
    • Safeguard 7.2 : Establish and Maintain a Remediation Process: Establish and maintain a risk-based remediation strategy documented in a remediation process, with monthly, or more frequent, reviews.
    • Safeguard 7.6 : Perform Automated Vulnerability Scans of Externally-Exposed Enterprise Assets: Perform automated vulnerability scans of externally-exposed enterprise assets using a SCAP-compliant vulnerability scanning tool. Perform scans on a monthly, or more frequent, basis.
    • Safeguard 7.7 : Remediate Detected Vulnerabilities: Remediate detected vulnerabilities in software through processes and tooling on a monthly, or more frequent, basis, based on the remediation process.
    • Safeguard 16.13 Conduct Application Penetration Testing: Conduct application penetration testing. For critical applications, authenticated penetration testing is better suited to finding business logic vulnerabilities than code scanning and automated security testing. Penetration testing relies on the skill of the tester to manually manipulate an application as an authenticated and unauthenticated user.
    • Safeguard 18.1 : Establish and Maintain a Penetration Testing Program: Establish and maintain a penetration testing program appropriate to the size, complexity, and maturity of the enterprise. Penetration testing program characteristics include scope, such as network, web application, Application Programming Interface (API), hosted services, and physical premise controls; frequency; limitations, such as acceptable hours, and excluded attack types; point of contact information; remediation, such as how findings will be routed internally; and retrospective requirements.
    • Safeguard 18.2 : Perform Periodic External Penetration Tests: Perform periodic external penetration tests based on program requirements, no less than annually. External penetration testing must include enterprise and environmental reconnaissance to detect exploitable information. Penetration testing requires specialized skills and experience and must be conducted through a qualified party. The testing may be clear box or opaque box.
    • Safeguard 18.3 : Remediate Penetration Test Findings: Remediate penetration test findings based on the enterprise’s policy for remediation scope and prioritization.
  • Apply the Principle of Least Privilege to all systems and services. Run all software as a non-privileged user (one without administrative privileges) to diminish the effects of a successful attack. (M1026: Privileged Account Management)
    • Safeguard 4.7: Manage Default Accounts on Enterprise Assets and Software: Manage default accounts on enterprise assets and software, such as root, administrator, and other pre-configured vendor accounts. Example implementations can include: disabling default accounts or making them unusable.
    • Safeguard 5.4: Restrict Administrator Privileges to Dedicated Administrator Accounts: Restrict administrator privileges to dedicated administrator accounts on enterprise assets. Conduct general computing activities, such as internet browsing, email, and productivity suite use, from the user’s primary, non-privileged account.
  • Restrict use of certain websites, block downloads/attachments, block Javascript, restrict browser extensions, etc. (M1021: Restrict Web-Based Content)
    • Safeguard 2.3: Address Unauthorized Software: Ensure that unauthorized software is either removed from use on enterprise assets or receives a documented exception. Review monthly, or more frequently.
    • Safeguard 2.7: Allowlist Authorized Scripts: Use technical controls, such as digital signatures and version control, to ensure that only authorized scripts, such as specific .ps1, .py, etc., files, are allowed to execute. Block unauthorized scripts from executing. Reassessbi-annually, or more frequently.
    • Safeguard 9.3: Maintain and Enforce Network-Based URL Filters: Enforce and update network-based URL filters to limit an enterprise asset from connecting to potentially malicious or unapproved websites. Example implementations include category-based filtering, reputation-based filtering, or through the use of block lists. Enforce filters for all enterprise assets.
    • Safeguard 9.6: Block Unnecessary File Types: Block unnecessary file types attempting to enter the enterprise’s email gateway.
  • Use capabilities to detect and block conditions that may lead to or be indicative of a software exploit occurring. (Mitigation M1050 : Exploit Protection)
    • Safeguard 10.5: Enable Anti-Exploitation Features: Enable anti-exploitation features on enterprise assets and software, where possible, such as Microsoft® Data Execution Prevention (DEP), Windows® Defender Exploit Guard (WDEG), or Apple® System Integrity Protection (SIP) and Gatekeeper™.
  • Train users to be aware of access or manipulation attempts by an adversary to reduce the risk of successful spearphishing, social engineering, and other techniques that involve user interaction. (M1017: User Training)
    • Safeguard 14.1: Establish and Maintain a Security Awareness Program: Establish and maintain a security awareness program. The purpose of a security awareness program is to educate the enterprise’s workforce on how to interact with enterprise assets and data in a secure manner. Conduct training at hire and, at a minimum, annually. Review and update content annually, or when significant enterprise changes occur that could impact this Safeguard.
    • Safeguard 14.6: Train Workforce Members on Recognizing and Reporting Security Incidents: Train workforce members to be able to recognize a potential incident and be able to report such an incident.

REFERENCES:

Apple:

https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT213495
https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT213489
https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT213493
https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT213494
https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT213488
https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT213492
https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT213491

CVE:   

https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2021-36690
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2021-39537
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0261
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0318
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0319
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0351
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0359
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0361
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0368
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0392
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0554
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0572
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0629
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0685
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0696
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0714
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0729
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-0943
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1381
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1420
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1616
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1619
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1620
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1621
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1622
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1629
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1674
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1720
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1725
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1733
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1735
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1769
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1851
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1897
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1898
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1927
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1942
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-1968
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-2000
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-2042
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-2124
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-2125
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-2126
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-3437
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-26730
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-28739
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-29458
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32205
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32206
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32207
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32208
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32827
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32862
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32864
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32865
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32866
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32867
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32870
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32875
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32879
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32881
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32883
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32886
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32888
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32890
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32892
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32895
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32898
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32899
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32902
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32904
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32905
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32908
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32911
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32912
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32913
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32914
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32915
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32918
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32922
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32924
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32928
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32934
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32936
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32938
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32940
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32946
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-32947
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42788
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42789
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42790
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42791
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42793
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42795
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42799
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42806
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42808
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42809
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42811
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42813
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42814
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42815
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42818
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42819
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42820
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42823
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42824
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42825
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42827
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42829
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42830
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42831
https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2022-42832

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