APT40 TTP’s

by | Jul 22, 2021 | Situational Awareness

Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures of Indicted APT40 Actors Associated with China ’s MSS Hainan State Security Department

SUMMARY

APT40—aka BRONZE MOHAWK, FEVERDREAM, G0065, Gadolinium, GreenCrash, Hellsing, Kryptonite Panda, Leviathan, MUDCARP, Periscope, Temp.Periscope, and Temp.Jumper—is located in Haikou, Hainan Province, People’s Republic of China (PRC), and has been active since at least 2009. APT40 has targeted governmental organizations, companies, and universities in a wide range of industries—including biomedical, robotics, and maritime research—across the United States, Canada, Europe, the Middle East, and the South China Sea area, as well as industries included in China’s Belt and Road Initiative.

On July 19, 2021, the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) unsealed an indictment against four APT40 cyber actors for their illicit computer network exploitation (CNE) activities via front company Hainan Xiandun Technology Development Company (Hainan Xiandun) between 2011 and 2018. Hainan Xiandun employee Wu Shurong cooperated with and carried out orders from PRC Ministry of State Security (MSS) Hainan State Security Department (HSSD) intelligence officers Ding Xiaoyang, Zhu Yunmin, and Cheng Qingmin to conduct CNE. Wu’s CNE activities resulted in the theft of trade secrets, intellectual property, and other high-value information from companies and organizations in the United States and abroad, as well as from multiple foreign governments. These MSS-affiliated actors targeted victims in the following industries: academia, aerospace/aviation, biomedical, defense industrial base, education, government, healthcare, manufacturing, maritime, research institutes, and transportation (rail and shipping).

MITIGATIONS

Network Defense-in-Depth

Proper network defense-in-depth and adherence to information security best practices can assist in mitigating the threat and reducing the risk. The following guidance may assist organizations in developing network defense procedures.

Patch and Vulnerability Management

  • Install vendor-provided and verified patches on all systems for critical vulnerabilities, prioritizing timely patching of internet-connected servers and software processing internet data—such as web browsers, browser plugins, and document readers.
  • Ensure proper migrating steps or compensating controls are implemented for vulnerabilities that cannot be patched in a timely manner.
    Maintain up-to-date antivirus signatures and engines.
  • Routinely audit configuration and patch management programs to ensure the ability to track and mitigate emerging threats. Implementing a rigorous configuration and patch management program will hamper sophisticated cyber threat actors’ operations and protect resources and information systems.
  • Review the articles in the References section for more information on Chinese APT exploitation of common vulnerabilities.

Protect Credentials

  • Strengthen credential requirements, regularly change passwords, and implement multi-factor authentication to protect individual accounts, particularly for webmail and VPN access and for accounts that access critical systems. Do not reuse passwords for multiple accounts.
  • Audit all remote authentications from trusted networks or service providers.
  • Detect mismatches by correlating credentials used within internal networks with those employed on external-facing systems.  Log use of system administrator commands such as net, ipconfig, and ping.
  • Enforce principle of least privilege.

Network Hygiene and Monitoring

  • Actively scan and monitor internet-accessible applications for unauthorized access, modification, and anomalous activities.
  • Actively monitor server disk use and audit for significant changes.
  • Log Domain Name Service (DNS) queries and consider blocking all outbound DNS requests that do not originate from approved DNS servers. Monitor DNS queries for C2 over DNS.
  • Develop and monitor the network and system baselines to allow for the identification of anomalous activity. Audit logs for suspicious behavior.
  • Identify and suspend access of users exhibiting unusual activity.
  • Use allowlist or baseline comparison to monitor Windows event logs and network traffic to detect when a user maps a privileged administrative share on a Windows system.
  • Leverage multi-sourced threat-reputation services for files, DNS, URLs, IP addresses, and email addresses.
  • Network device management interfaces—such as Telnet, Secure Shell (SSH), Winbox, and HTTP—should be turned off for wide area network (WAN) interfaces and secured with strong passwords and encryption when enabled.
  • When possible, segment critical information on air-gapped systems. Use strict access control measures for critical data.

APT40 INDICATORS OF COMPROMISE

APT40 used the following domains and MD5 hash values to facilitate the CNE activity outlined in this CSA between 2009 through 2018.

Domains

airbusocean[.]com
cargillnotice[.]com
ccidmeekparry[.]info
ccvzvhjhdf[.]website
cdigroups[.]com
checkecc[.]com
chemscalere[.]com
cnnzapmeta[.]com
corycs[.]com
deltektimes[.]com
Engaction[.]com
ens-smithjonathan.rhcloud[.]com
fishgatesite.wordpress[.]com
goo2k88yyh2.chickenkiller[.]com
gttdoskip[.]com
http://gkimertds.wordpress[.]com/feed/
http://stackoverflow[.]com/users/3627469/angle-swift
http://stackoverflow[.]com/users/3804206/swiftr-angle
http://stackoverflow[.]com/users/3863346/gkimertdssdads
https://github[.]com/slotz/sharp-loader/commit/f9de338fb474fd970a7375030642d04179b9245d
https://pastebin[.]com/p1mktQpD
https://pastebin[.]com/vfb5mbbu
huntingtomingalls[.]com
indiadigest[.]in
jack-newnb[.]com
kAty197.chickenkiller[.]com
louisdreyfu[.]com
mail2.ignorelist[.]com
masterroot[.]pw
microsql-update[.]info
mihybb[.]com
mlcdailynews[.]com
movyaction[.]net
msusanode[.]com
newbb-news[.]com
nfmybb[.]com
nmw4xhipveaca7hm[.]onion.link/en_US/all.js
nobug[.]uk.to
notesof992.wordpress[.]com
onlinenewspapers[.]club
onlineobl[.]com
oyukg43t[.]website
pacifichydrologic[.]org
philippinenewss[.]com
philstarnotice[.]com
porndec143.chickenkiller[.]com
santaclarasystem[.]us
scsnewstoday[.]com
secbkav[.]com
Soure7788.chickenkiller[.]com
tccoll[.]com
teledynegroup[.]com
teledyneinstrument[.]com
testdomain2019.chickenkiller[.]com
thestar[.]live
thrivedataview[.]com
thyssemkrupp[.]com
thyssenkrupp-marinesystems[.]org
togetno992.mooo[.]com
tojenner97.chickenkiller[.]com
trafficeco[.]com
transupdate[.]com
troubledate[.]com
ultrasocial[.]info
usdagroup[.]com
vser.mooo[.]com
wsmcoff[.]com
www.yorkshire-espana-sa[.]com/english/servicios/
xbug.uk[.]to
yootypes[.]com

MD5 Hashes

To uncover malicious activity, incident responders search for indicators of compromise (IOCs) in network- and host-based artifacts and assess the results—eliminating false positives during the assessment. For example, some MD5 IOCs in the table below identify legitimate tools—such as PuTTY, cmd.exe, svchost.exe, etc.—as indicators of compromise. Although the tools themselves are not malicious, APT40 attackers placed and used them from non-standard folders on victim systems during computer intrusion activity. If a legitimate tool is identified by an incident responder, then the location of the tool should be assessed to eliminate false positives or to uncover malicious activity.

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